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Re: Cuba

Post by blindpig » Sun Dec 09, 2018 4:38 pm

Inhabitants of small town in Brazil say goodbye to Cuban doctor in massive marchPublished 3 days ago on December 6, 2018
By Drafting Cuballama


A Cuban doctor living in the city of Miami for three years confessed to Cuballama having left Brazil with the same chest pain that the Cuban doctor was carrying from a video that is being shared on social networks, and that they say was recorded in the moment the doctor was fired from the place where he worked in Brazil.

At first glance the images could be confused with those of a burial any other than because the background song "I want to have a million friends," and another one, interpreted by the idol of Brazil, Roberto Carlos, and because the user who shared the images on Facebook, Daniel Guerra said that according to the testimony of a cousin of him, who was also in Brazil practicing as a health professional, that was the farewell that the residents of a village intricated in the Brazilian geography to the Cuban physician who exercised there his functions as part of the Plan "More Doctors" signed between Brasilia and Havana.

In the words accompanying the video, Guerra expresses: " The soul part not only to see that people saying goodbye to their doctor, but to him, who cries of so much emotion ".

"My dear cousin Olanise , tells me what happened to her on a bus in a village in Olinda, # Brazil . The story has to do with the farewell of the Cuban doctor on the streets through to the sound of a million friends of the Carioca Roberto Carlos. There I share with you and I suggest you read until the end and you will know what a beautiful and loaded thing of popular feeling. Watch the video.

Pay attention to the simplicity of the street, of the town lost in the immensity of # Bahia , which lasted 5 years in a row living and working a doctor, attending from Monday to Friday until the last patient. "

Moments later he told the anecdote that she heard on a bus from Brazil.

- Saturday, December 1: I took the bus that makes the Casa Caiada center Recife line. I went to look for a book by Raymundo Faoro in the heads of the center of Recife. I found the book, but the best part of the trip was the conversation heard standing inside the bus. The issue was Cuban doctors:

- A brunette of about 34 years old was talking to a sitting man. She and I stand. He described meticulously how it had been attended by a Cuban doctor in Paulista, which is coladita Olinda: "The Cuban doctor examined me up and down, touched me and asked what I ate, how I slept, if I exercised and a lot of questions, nobody ever examined me like that, "he added.

And the best came later: "Have you seen a health doctor call the patient? The doctor passed an exam that I had to do and take back in 30 days, I did it and I did not worry about taking it back. Here is my phone and it was from the Health Post: It was the doctor who was with my file and the return note with the requested test. Can a Brazilian doctor imagine worrying about me? Never".

- I still talked a little before I went down. She had time to tell me that the Cuban woman told her that she was a "time bomb" and that, beyond the exams, she recommended a diet and walks. "

The Cuban doctor who communicated this morning with this editor told Cuballama "to have seen herself reflected in that video", and said: " I loved Brazil ... I was adored in my village ", with a broken voice.

" I cried a lot with that video ," he continued. " I did not leave my office until the last of the children returned from school ."

" They came at five o'clock, when they left classes, and some arrived with fever, others with things in their ears and with diarrhea. Until they closed the school, I would not go to my house to take a bath and sleep , "she expressed moving before saying goodbye with the phrase:

" I left Brazil with the same chest pain that doctor had ." ... tudinaria/

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Re: Cuba

Post by blindpig » Thu Jan 03, 2019 4:02 pm

A text enriched by the contributions of the Cuban people
Secretary of the Council of State, Homero Acosta, presented December 21 a detailed report to the National Assembly of People’s Power on the results of the popular consultation process on the draft Constitution, including the most debated issues and significant changes to the text

Author: Granma news staff |

january 3, 2019 09:01:27

This process of popular consultation on the draft Constitution of the Republic of Cuba is a genuine expression of the democratic and participatory nature of our socialist system. Photo: Estudios Revolución
THE proposed Constitution of the Republic of Cuba was described as a text that has gained in quality in terms of its wording and content, enriched by the proposals emanating from the people, in the report presented December 21 by Homero Acosta, secretary of the Council of State, during the Second Ordinary Period of Sessions of the National Assembly of the People’s Power’s Ninth Legislature, on the results of the popular consultation process.

The resulting document is a genuine expression of the democratic and participatory nature of our socialist system. The broad popular participation in the process reflected the high degree of cultural and political education of the Cuban people and their commitment and majority identification with the perfecting of the country’s political, economic and social system.

It also highlights the transparency, organization, responsibility and rigor with which the preparation and realization of the consultation assemblies on the draft Constitution were carried out, as well as the collection, processing and analysis of the population’s proposals at all levels.


As agreed by the National Assembly of People’s Power in its ordinary session of July 21 and 22 this year, the draft Constitution of the Republic was submitted to a popular consultation process August 13 through November 15, 2018.

Prior to the consultation, working infrastructure was established to collect and process all the information derived from it, and those responsible for chairing the assemblies were trained to ensure the smoothest process.

The popular consultation process saw:

• 133,681 meetings, of which:

79,947 were of the general population

45,452 were held among groups of workers

3,441 among campesinos

1,585 among university students

3,256 among high school students

8,945,521 people attended these meetings
1,706,872 comments were made, of which:
783,174 proposals

666,995 modifications

32,149 additions

45,548 deletions

38,482 requests for clarification

This information was processed according to each of the paragraphs of the document submitted for consultation, and those that were very similar were grouped into 9,595 standard proposals (each conformed of an average of 78 individual proposals).

Also evaluated were the 2,125 proposals submitted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MINREX), received from Cubans residing abroad. Of these, 1,150 were modifications, 350 additions, 406 deletions and 219 requests for clarification. A total of 978 standard proposals were derived from these.

In total, the web page enabled by MINREX received 4,751 visits from 123 countries, although proposals were only registered from 58. The vast majority of these do not question the essence of the Cuban system.

The deputies to the National Assembly of People’s Power undertook an exhaustive study of the changes to the document resulting from the popular consultation. Photo: Estudios Revolución
In the same way, opinions expressed through other channels, such as social networks, letters from the population, and others, were evaluated. Of special significance were those derived from analyzes conducted in law schools, scientific centers, the Academy of Sciences of Cuba and societies of the National Union of Jurists.

Among the spontaneous opinions collected about the process, 62% were favorable, 35% related to expectations, suggestions and concerns, and only 3% reflected criticisms.

The largest number of proposals made by the population focused on the following topics:

1. Marriage (Article 68 of the draft). A total of 192,408 proposals were made (24.57% of the total) in 88,066 meetings. The most significant were those calling for the wording of the current Constitution to be maintained, those related to same-sex couples and children, as well as the elimination of the proposed article.

2. On the President of the Republic. Different opinions were expressed, the most significant regarding:

a) Term limits (Article 121 of the draft), in 88,039 proposals (11.24% of the total) made in 65,803 meetings. The opinions, in a general sense, reject putting a limit on the number of terms of office an individual may serve as president (74,450), propose eliminating the paragraph, or substituting two terms for three.

b) The age limit of 60 years for presidential candidates (second paragraph of Article 122). There were 24,335 proposals (3.11% of the total), collected in 20,135 meetings. Most propose eliminating the paragraph, that no age limit should be applied, or raising the age limit.

c) Election of the President of the Republic (Article 121 of the draft). There were 16,716 proposals (2.13% of the total), in 12,804 meetings. The largest number proposed that the president be directly elected by voters (12,264 proposals).

d) The minimum age of 35 for presidential candidates (Article 122 of the draft). A total of 10,307 proposals were made (1.32% of the total), in 8,990 meetings. The majority views are either to raise this minimum age or remove it.

3. Work (Article 31 of the draft), with 51,414 proposals (6.56% of the total) in 40,420 meetings. Essentially, they demonstrate the interest in establishing its compulsory nature (46,968). Similarly, on Article 76 of the draft, regarding remuneration for work, 12,558 proposals (1.6% of the total) were made in 9,767 meetings, mainly linked to the need for salaries to reflect current prices, as well as doubts regarding the way in which the principle of socialist distribution will be guaranteed.

4. The Provincial Government (Article 165 of the draft). There were 25,650 proposals (3.28% of the total) in 18,455 meetings, mainly focused on changing the proposed title of Governor to that of President, Head or other. Also, on the means of appointing the Governor (Article 170 of the draft), 16,188 proposals were made (2.07% of the total) in 12,847 meetings. Most proposed that the Governor be elected directly, by the people, or by the Municipal Assemblies of People’s Power, or the Provincial Council.

5. The right to legal assistance in one’s defense (subsection f) of Article 48 of the draft). There were 18,283 proposals made related to this topic (2.33% of the total), in 15,132 meetings. In essence, it was requested that individuals have the right to legal assistance from the very moment of their arrest.

6. The right to decent housing (Article 82 of the draft). On this subject, there were 15,398 proposals (1.97% of the total), made in 13,182 meetings. The main comments were to propose changing the term “decent” for “habitable” (5,835), and doubts as to what is considered decent housing.

In the case of Cubans residing abroad, the main proposals related to the request that they be guaranteed equality in the enjoyment of their rights and duties, in particular their right to vote, and recognition of their total working time in Cuba, or another country, for the purposes of social security.


In order to analyze each of the proposals, on September 28, in the presence of Army General Raúl Castro, a Working Group was created conformed of 30 compañeros, of whom nine were members of and two advisers to the Constitution Drafting Commission, while 19 represented other institutions.

The Group was structured into seven subgroups. The proposals according to each title of the draft text were distributed among six of these groups, while the other was in charge of information technology support. A central group was also organized, responsible for analyzing the proposals of the subgroups, preparing the final report and presenting it to the Constitution of the Republic Drafting Commission.

Based on rigorous scientific methods, which can be audited, the processing of the information resulting from the national debate began as soon as the National Processing Team received the first set of data, on October 5, 2018, and ended on November 15. It was a principle of the Group’s work to evaluate each of the proposals presented, and to substantiate the decision proposed in this regard.

Of the 9,595 standard proposals received, the Group proposed that the Drafting Commission accept 4,809, representing 50.1%, some with a direct reflection in the text, although not necessarily with the same wording or in the same article that was proposed; while others were already contemplated in some way within the draft; and a considerable number, due to their content, will be taken into account in subsequent legislative processes, which reflects the broad extent of this process.

It was proposed not to accept 4,786, or 49.9% of these proposals, some of which are inadmissible from a legal point of view; but to a greater extent, because they do not contribute to the text or refer to specific aspects or wording that are irrelevant; while a significantly smaller number are incompatible with our principles.

Meanwhile, of the 978 standard proposals stemming from the consultation of Cubans residing abroad, it was suggested to accept 391, representing 40%, many of them coinciding with the proposals considered to be included in the processing undertaken.

During the analysis, which studied each and every proposal, it was necessary to consult MINREX, the Ministry of Labor and Social Security, the Office of Attention to Religious Affairs of the Communist Party of Cuba (PCC) Central Committee, the Ministries of the Interior and Agriculture, as well as the University of Havana‘s Law School, and other specialists in different fields.

The result of the detailed analysis of the proposals was presented to the Constitution Drafting Commission, which, headed by its President, Army General Raúl Castro Ruz, Party First Secretary, met between November 16 and 21 of the present year.

From the profound and extensive debates held by the Commission on each of the issues, a new version of the Draft Constitution was elaborated and analyzed in detail in the 8th Plenum of the Communist Party of Cuba’s Central Committee, December 11 and 12.

The proposed new project includes approximately 760 changes, including additions and deletions of articles, phrases, words, and others.

It maintains the 11 titles of the original draft, although the order of some has varied:

Title I Political Foundations
Title II Economic Foundations
Title III Principles of Educational, Scientific and Cultural Policy (formerly Title V)
Title IV Citizenship (formerly Title III)
Title V Rights, Responsibilities, and Guarantees (formerly Title IV, with changes to the names of chapters II, III, IV and VI)
Title VI Structure of the State (Chapter V Laws, is now no. VIII, the last of this Title, with two new sections. Its name was also changed to Legal Provisions)
Title VII Territorial Organization of the State
Title VIII Local People’s Power Bodies
Title IX Electoral System
Title X Defense and National Security
Title XI Constitutional Reform (Maintained are the 24 chapters, with 18 sections, two more than the original draft, on incorporating two sections into Chapter VIII of Title VI. Contains 229 articles, of which eight are new)
In the Preamble of the draft text approved by the National Assembly, eight paragraphs have been modified and four new ones included; and of the 224 articles it contains, suggested were changes to 134, or 59.8%, the elimination of three (Articles 4, 18 and 30, although the content of the first and the last are integrated in other precepts), representing 1.3%; while 87, or 38.8%, remain unchanged. All this data belies the claim of some that the opinions of the people would not be taken into account.


Some adjustments were made to its content, especially the inclusion of reference to the clandestine struggle; proletarian internationalism and note that “Cuba will never return to capitalism as a regime based on the exploitation of man by man, and that only in socialism and communism do human beings attain their full dignity.”

There were broad requests, although not reflected in the draft, for the mention of many heroes (Che, Camilo, Carlos Manuel de Céspedes, Mella, Villena...), and other passages of our history.

Political Foundations:
In the first chapter, Fundamental Principles, there were changes in the order of articles, mainly because the former Article 10 (on popular sovereignty) is now Article 3.

One issue debated in the Working Group was the question of replacing the name given to national symbols, in particular the national flag and anthem (Article 2, formerly 4), which it was proposed not to accept, in correspondence with the name recognized in the current constitutional text, and traditional.

In Article 5, referring to the Party, this was defined as the leading political force of society and the State, and mention of communism was included. In Articles 7 and 8, it is clear that the Party, like the rest of the mass organizations, is obliged to comply with the Constitution and the law.

Only 0.03% of the opinions gathered questioned the role of this organization.

Article 18 of the draft text, regarding supranational entities, was eliminated, considering that such a process is not visible in the immediate term, and because part of its content could be included in subsection d) of Article 16, on Latin American integration.

Economic Foundations:
Two new articles were incorporated, one on worker participation in the “processes of planning, regulation, management and control of the economy” (Article 20); and the other on the role of science, technology and innovation in the economic and social development of the country (Article 21).

Regarding the different forms of property, the wording on private ownership was improved to make explicit that this includes Cuban and foreign individuals and legal entities, playing a complementary role in the economy. Likewise, added among the forms of ownership relating to institutions and associative entities, is that of churches, foundations and other associations.

Regarding the socialist property of the entire people, it is specified that the Council of State has the power to transfer rights that do not imply ownership over property in the public domain (Article 23), and included among these are mineral deposits and beaches.

Within this form of property, also defined was the inclusion of other heritage assets, of a strategic nature for the economic and social development of the country, including “the main infrastructures, industries and economic and social facilities,” ownership over which may be transferred only in exceptional cases, by the Council of Ministers, provided that they are destined for the economic and social development of the country.

Another modification is to the content of Article 22 (current Article 30), which in its new wording specifies the regulation by the State of the concentration of property by non-state legal entities and individuals, and includes that related to a fairer redistribution of wealth, an aspect on which many different opinions were expressed, and with which a large number of proposals are addressed.

In Article 31, despite the high number of proposals (46,968) to include the obligation to work, it was agreed to suggest not to accept this concept, as it is contrary to our international principles and commitments. However, the text recognizes work as a “social duty.”

In turn, it was specified as part of this precept that paid employment should be the main source of income, in order to establish this in a more progressive way, and in line with the current reality.

Among the general elements recognized in the draft text are the socialist character of our economic system, the role of the State in the management, regulation and control of the economy, the socialist ownership of the people over the fundamental means of production, and recognition of the market, socialist planning, worker participation in economic processes, the role of socialist state enterprises, private property of a complementary character, and the role of foreign investment.

Principles of Educational, Scientific and Cultural Policy
It is noted that educational, scientific and cultural policy is also based on innovation; the concept that “creative and research activity in science is free,” present in the current Constitution, was reinserted, as it corresponded with essential principles for the development of that activity; and in terms of artistic creation and forms of expression, the text specifies that artistic content must respect the principles of State cultural policy.

The most important addition to the text was the clarification that the acquisition of a further citizenship does not imply the loss of Cuban citizenship, in response to 1,309 proposals from the population in this regard (Article 36, formerly Article 35).

Rights, Responsibilities, and Guarantees
In the chapter on General Provisions, a new Article (40) was included to recognize human dignity as people’s supreme value.
In the precept referring to equality (Article 42, formerly Article 40), due to popular requests (1,266 proposals), the right of all “to enjoy the same public spaces and service establishments,” was included, which resolves concerns regarding access to beaches, hotels or other sites.

The concept that people “receive equal pay for work of equal value,” (former Article 76) was moved to Article 42, with the change that people “receive equal pay for equal work,” and it was added “without any discrimination.” Thus the phrase acquired true meaning and any doubts regarding its interpretation were addressed.

In Chapter II, with the new title of “Rights,” all rights, whatever their nature (individual, civil, political, economic, social, etc.) are gathered, a change intended to avoid doubts as regards their classification.

With regard to freedom of the press (Article 55, formerly Article 60), in the second paragraph, it was specified that the fundamental means of communication are the socialist property of the entire people or “of political, social and mass organizations.” In addition, that under no circumstances may they be the object of private property.

Added as a material guarantee to the right to work (Article 64, formerly Article 75) was the State’s responsibility to organize “institutions and services that assist working families to carry out their responsibilities,” an aspect that offers a response of a general nature to insistence that childcare centers or other facilities be explicitly mentioned.

Another aspect of the draft text that did not change was related to the principle of socialist distribution (Article 65, formerly Article 76), although there are differing opinions among academics, and a claim that this principle is not supported by the current economic reality and therefore should be deleted. However, as a principle that is intrinsic to socialist society, we must assume and defend it.

The right to social security (Article 68, formerly Article 79) was extended to recognize the protection not only of maternity and paternity but also of “grandparents or other relatives of the minor, according to his/her care and attention.” This is in line with current regulations and responds to the opinions of the population.

The right to “decent” housing was modified (Article 71, formerly Article 82), regarding which there were many doubts and observations. Instead of the latter term, the concept of “adequate” housing was used, and the right to a “safe and healthy habitat” extended, which offers greater precision and entails not only a physical space and a roof over one’s head, but the wider environment in which dwellings are located, and their main characteristics.

In the right to public health (Article 72, formerly Article 83), the responsibility of the State was made more explicit, adding that services should be of “quality,” and incorporating as a guarantee the creation of a “health system at all levels, accessible to the entire population,” and the development of “programs for health prevention and education, to which society and families contribute.”

Regarding education (Article 73, formerly Article 84), it was added in terms of the responsibility of the State that services must be of quality, and its free nature extended from “early childhood to postgraduate university education,” in response to 1,507 proposals from the population.

The guarantees to put this right into effect were also extended, among them the possibility offered by “the broad system of educational institutions and the possibility of studying at any stage of life.”

A new chapter on Families (Chapter III), was inserted, similar to the current constitutional text and with the objective of visualizing the importance of this issue in society.

It is worth noting the new regulation that appears in Article 81 (formerly Article 67), which establishes the right of persons to establish a family, whatever its form of organization, and the definition that these are constituted “through legal or de facto ties.”

According to data from the 2012 Census, 5,476,734 people (over 15 years old) are in stable relationships. Of these, 48% are common-law unions, and 52% are married.

In order to respond to the views regarding the content of Article 68, mention of the individuals that conform a marriage was eliminated. In its place, the new Article 82 establishes that marriage is a social and legal institution, and one of the forms of organization of families, thus leaving it to the law to establish its subsequent development.

Coupled with this, the Eleventh Transitional Provision establishes that within two years of the new Constitution’s entry into force, the National Assembly will arrange to initiate a process of popular consultation and referendum on the draft Family Code, which should include the definition of marriage. The intention is not to include in the constitutional text the subjects of this institution, and achieve its definition in a referendum vote on the aforementioned Code.

A necessary balance has been sought, as the Constitution of the Republic must generate consensus in society.

Article 82 took into account both the views of people in favor of same-sex marriage, and those who do not support it. Here there are no winners or losers.

What was expressed in the draft is our general will, but this was not the time to establish it as there was no consensus. But we maintain the intention to achieve this in the future. The Family Code will be put to the vote because it is the most democratic way of defining it.

At the same time, Article 82 itself recognizes de facto unions and provides for legislation to regulate the conditions and circumstances in which these are configured, as well as the rights and obligations deriving from them. These unions could be of heterosexual or same-sex couples, but their subjects are also omitted in the Constitution text.

Families are not only bound through marriage, some are constituted in legal acts such as marriage or adoption, but there are also de facto families based on consensual unions.

In this chapter dedicated to families (Article 86, former Article 72), the rights of children and adolescents are broadened, considering them full subjects of rights as established in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. A new Article (87) also recognizes the role of young people in society.

The protection and exercise of rights by older persons (Article 88, formerly Article 73) and persons with disabilities (Article 89, formerly Article 74) is also underlined.

In Chapter IV of Title V, on Duties (Article 90, former Article 91), the fundamental change is the incorporation of respect and protection of national symbols, as well as the duty to protect flora and fauna, responding to a widespread demand to regulate the protection of animals.

In a new Chapter VI on Guarantee of Rights, the entire system of guarantees that was dispersed across different articles of the draft text is grouped together. Two new articles are incorporated: Article 92, regarding judicial protection, and Article 93, recognizing alternative methods of conflict resolution (arbitration, mediation, etc.).

The principle of Due Process (former Article 48), saw an important modification, on dividing the general issues related to any matter (Article 94), and those related to the criminal proceedure itself (Article 95).

Legal assistance in criminal proceedings was highly requested from the moment of arrest. This was a widely debated topic and consensus was reached that it would be provided from the beginning of the process, leaving the specifics to the law.

Incorporated into Article 99 (formerly Article 94) was the possibility of recourse to the courts in the event of the violation of constitutional rights, not only by the State or its representatives, but also by individuals and non-state entities. Likewise, it is left to the law to define these constitutional rights and the subsequent procedure.

Structure of the State
In general, the same wording was maintained, with some very specific changes. In this Title, there are four aspects related to the figure of the President of the Republic, on which people expressed the most opinions (term of office, minimum and maximum ages, as well as his/her popular election). These remain as they were in the draft text, in accordance with the decisions of the Party Congresses, and its First National Conference.

Territorial Organization of the State
There were no major changes to this Title. In Article 169 (formerly Article 164), the faculty of municipalities to dictate agreements and regulatory provisions for the exercise of their powers was specified, as one of the issues arising from municipal autonomy.

Local People’s Power Bodies
The most important change in this Title was regarding the election of Provincial Governors and Vice Governors (Article 175, formerly Article 170). The proposal that they be elected by delegates of the respective Municipal Assemblies of People’s Power (AMPP) was accepted, at the proposal of the President of the Republic, with which a popular demand is also partly accepted.

The other important change lies in incorporating AMPP vice presidents as members of the Provincial Council (Article 182, formerly Article 177), as well as eliminating the mention of other members. Regarding this Title, some views questioned the titles of “Governor” and “Intendant.” However, it was considered that there were no compelling reasons to change them.

Electoral System and Defense and National Security
There were no noteworthy changes.

Constitutional Reform
In Article 227 (formerly Article 222), referring to reform initiative, the National Council of the Cuban Workers’ Federation, and the national directorates of the other mass and social organizations were included as subjects, in correspondence to their legislative initiative and the role they play within the Cuban political system.

The intangibility clauses provided for in Article 229 (formerly Article 224) were maintained, with the irrevocability of the socialist system defined more generally, without specifying the components that constitute it.

In the supplementary provisions of the draft (Special, Transitional, and Final), a new provision was added, which is now the Fifth, relating to the President’s proposal of Provincial Governor and Vice Governor candidates. The wording of the Tenth provision (now the Eleventh) was adjusted as already expressed, and the Twelfth was eliminated.

The Secretary of the Council of State, Homero Acosta, on concluding the presentation of the draft Constitution, acknowledged that “If we have come this far, it is because we have a helmsman who steered us to safe harbor. That helmsman is Raúl Castro, a modest man who knows how to listen.”

Source: Report to the National Assembly of People’s Power on the outcome of the popular consultation on the draft Constitution of the Republic of Cuba ... ban-people
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Re: Cuba

Post by blindpig » Mon Jan 07, 2019 9:09 pm

'Sonic attack' on US embassy in Havana could have been crickets, say scientists
Noise which saw diplomats complaining of headaches and nausea could be song of Indies short-tailed cricket

Ian Sample Science editor

Sun 6 Jan 2019 14.58 EST Last modified on Sun 6 Jan 2019 15.48 EST

The US embassy in Havana. It more than halved its staff in 2017 after diplomats complained about a mysterious noise. Photograph: Yamil Lage/AFP/Getty Images

The US embassy in Havana more than halved its staff in 2017 when diplomats complained of headaches, nausea and other ailments after hearing penetrating noises in their homes and nearby hotels.

The mysterious wave of illness fuelled speculation that the staff had been targeted by an acoustic weapon. It was an explanation that appeared to gain weight when an audio recording of a persistent, high-pitched drone made by US personnel in Cuba was released to the Associated Press.

But a fresh analysis of the audio recording has revealed what scientists in the UK and the US now believe is the true source of the piercing din: it is the song of the Indies short-tailed cricket, known formally as Anurogryllus celerinictus.


“The recording is definitively a cricket that belongs to the same group,” said Fernando Montealegre-Zapata, a professor of sensory biology at the University of Lincoln. “The call of this Caribbean species is about 7 kHz, and is delivered at an unusually high rate, which gives humans the sensation of a continuous sharp trill.”

As a child growing up in South America, Montealegre-Zapata recalls collecting crickets of a similar species and keeping them in cages in his room. One night he woke to a penetrating sharp sound. The culprit was one of the males calling out for mates. The offender was banned from the room but Montealegre-Zapata could still hear the cricket singing for females.

“I am not surprised that this call could disturb people who are not familiar with insect sounds,” he said.

The identification of the sound source does not mean that an attack of some sort did not happen, but it casts doubt over the sound being responsible for the diplomats’ health problems. The cause and nature of their illnesses remains unclear.

The spate of unexplained health problems among the US diplomats led doctors at the University of Pennsylvania to run tests on almost two dozen embassy staff. In March last year, the team concluded the diplomats had suffered concussion-like injuries, but other medical professionals have challenged the conclusions, claiming the doctors misinterpreted the test results.

Not all of the affected diplomats reported unusual sounds when they fell ill, and descriptions of any noises differed from person to person. Some recalled grinding or cicada-like sounds, while others experienced buffeting like that caused by an open car window.

In the new study, Montealegre-Zapata and Alexander Stubbs at the University of California searched a scientific database for insect sounds that matched the Cuban recording. The call of the Indies short-tailed cricket turned out to be remarkably similar, they found, with acoustic pulses repeated at the same rate, and specific frequencies being louder than others.

But the cricket’s mating call and the Cuban recording did not match up perfectly. The sound recorded in Havana had an uneven pulse structure which is not seen in calling insects.

Stubbs and Montealegre-Zapata realised that the discrepancy might be down to the environments in which the recordings were made. Scientists tend to record insect calls outside in the wild, while the diplomats complained of unpleasant sounds indoors. If the Cuban recording had been made in a room, the odd pulse structure might be explained by echoes off the walls, floor and ceiling.

The researchers tested the idea by playing the call of the Indies short-tailed cricket in a room through a single loudspeaker. Recordings from the room show that the sound gained the same uneven pulse structure seen in the Cuban recording. The two sounds matched even more closely.

Gerald Pollack, who studies how animals detect and discriminate sensory signals at McGill University in Montreal, said: “The paper shows how the cricket’s song could, when echoes to be expected in an indoor setting are taken into account, produce sounds strikingly, and quantitatively, similar to that provided by the AP. I find this a completely plausible explanation.”

He added that while he had no personal experience with the Indies short-tailed cricket, he had not heard of their calls ever having caused harm. “So far as I am aware,” he said, “except perhaps for an occasional sleepless night, no-one has suffered ill health as a result of cricket calls.” ... scientists
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Re: Cuba

Post by blindpig » Thu Jan 10, 2019 3:37 pm

Referendum: A democratic exercise
On February 24, the Cuban people will vote in a popular referendum on the new Constitution. We offer some details of the process

Author: Granma news staff |

january 9, 2019 16:01:57

Photo: Prensa Miraflores

ON February 24, the Cuban people, exercising their sovereignty, will decide on one of the most important issues for the country: the approval in a popular referendum of the new Constitution.

This is a fully democratic exercise, following from the approval by the National Assembly of People’s Power (ANPP) of the final text, drafted after the popular consultation process in which the entire population was able to participate. This led to the modification of 60% of the draft text through the opinions expressed in more than 133,000 meetings across the country.


Article 162 of the Electoral Law stipulates that “through referenda called by the National Assembly of People’s Power, citizens with the right to vote express whether or not they ratify draft bills for Constitutional Reform,” so that they may enter into force.

To carry out a referendum, ballot papers are used in which the question asked of the electorate is clearly and concretely expressed. In the case of the referendum of February 24, the question will be: “Do you approve the new Constitution of the Republic?” and the ballot will have two spaces to mark either Yes or No, as established by the law.


- The ANPP makes available to the people the Constitution that will be taken to popular referendum and fixes the date.

- The Council of State designates the members of the National Electoral Commission.

- Provincial, municipal, district, circumscription and special electoral commissions are created.

- The National Electoral Commission, in coordination with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, establishes what is necessary to guarantee the exercise of the vote by those voters who are outside the national territory on the day of the referendum.

- Municipal Electoral Commissions count the votes cast in each municipality and forward the results to Provincial Electoral Commissions.

- Provincial Electoral Commissions count the votes cast in all municipalities of each province, and send the results to the National Electoral Commission, which conducts the national count.

- Polling stations located outside the national territory count the ballots and communicate the results to their respective embassies, which forward these to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in order to be communicated to the National Electoral Commission.

- The National Electoral Commission, once the total vote count of the referendum has been conducted, informs the Council of State, which publishes the results and reports to the National Assembly of People’s Power for appropriate action.

(Source: 1992 Electoral Law) ... c-exercise
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Re: Cuba

Post by blindpig » Wed Jan 23, 2019 3:40 pm

Another perverse mechanism to encourage the theft of talent
Senators Marco Rubio and Bob Menéndez - with a long record of attacks on Cuba – have proposed to reactivate the Parole Program used to deprive the country of doctors, nurses, and other professionals, in a virtual international “brain drain” operation

Author: Granma |

january 22, 2019 15:01:03

Photo: Prensa Latina

“They attempt to impose a perverse mechanism to encourage eth theft of talent. One more anti-Cuba campaign, indicative of the impotence of imperialism in the face of the Revolution’s conquests. Its promoters are incapable of facilitating a civilized relationship; their arrogance blinds them,” said Miguel Díaz-Canel Bermúdez, President of Cuba’s Councils of State and Minister, in the wake of a new effort to reestablish the parole program for Cuban doctors, via a bipartisan proposal by Senators Marco Rubio (R-Florida), and Bob Menéndez (D-New Jersey), who have a long record of attacks on Cuba.

For his part, the Cuban Foreign Ministry’s director for the United States, Carlos Fernández de Cossío, condemned the introduction of this proposal to reactivate the program, and commented on the Senators’ initiative on his Twitter account, "Impotent resentment of Cuba has no limits. Unable to detain our recognized professional human development, quality baseball, and investment potential, Bob Menéndez and Rubio want to restore the brain drain program to steal Cuban doctors," Cossío tweeted.

The project consisted of granting visas to doctors and other Cuban health personnel working abroad in the country’s international missions. The parole program was part of the arsenal of measures used to deprive the country of doctors, nurses, and other health professionals, in a virtual international operation of brain theft promoted by the U.S. government, created in 2006 by George W. Bush, although its origins date back to the early days of the Revolution, when Cuba was left with half of the doctors it had in 1959. The program applies only to Cubans.

The program was suspended on January 12, 2017, eight days before the inauguration of President Donald Trump, along with the wet foot–dry foot policy, in an effort to promote regular, safe, orderly migration between the two countries. The Senators now brazenly accuse Cuban medical services, which have saved hundreds of thousands of lives around the world, of "human trafficking," and are seeking to restore the refugee program for physicians who "escape" from official Cuban missions abroad. At the same time, they requested that the State Department toughen up Cuba's classification in its annual report on human trafficking in the world.

On July 11, 2018, a new round of migratory talks was held in Washington between delegations from the two countries.

Both parties acknowledged the benefits of the Joint Declaration of January 12, 2017, in particular the elimination of the "wet foot-dry foot" policy and the "Parole Program for Cuban Medical Professionals" in the reduction of irregular emigration. They also agreed on the usefulness of the exchange between border control troops and the Coast Guard held in January 2018, and the technical meeting on trafficking in persons and immigration fraud held in December of 2017.

During these talks, compliance with bilateral agreements was reviewed, in order to guarantee regular, safe, orderly migration; discourage irregular migration; as well as prevent and confront related illicit activity. Cuba demonstrated that the country is strictly complying with its obligations, and reiterated its willingness to maintain and expand bilateral cooperation in this area.

The Cuban delegation urged the U.S. government to fully comply with its commitments to issue visas for migrants, in accordance with the Migration Agreements; and noted that the decision to suspend visa processing services at the embassy in Havana directly affects migratory relations, family ties, damaging institutional exchanges and travel between the two countries. On the other hand, concern was expressed about the Cuban Adjustment Act, which, along with other U.S. regulations, encourages irregular emigration of Cubans and exposes them to the risk of becoming victims of illegal traffickers and gangs associated with organized crime. ... -of-talent
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Re: Cuba

Post by blindpig » Thu Jan 24, 2019 12:35 pm

The OAS plays Judas in the Americas
It is time for the peoples of the region to wake up and expose the onslaught against Venezuela and Nicaragua

Author: Elson Concepción Pérez |

january 23, 2019 12:01:46


I wonder: What is the point of the OAS? Is it worth being a member? Why not build a common Latin American and Caribbean front and unmask it for what it is, along with its current Secretary General, Luis Almagro?

What is happening today against Venezuela and Nicaragua reminds me of the same OAS, conniving and servile to the dictates of the United States, and its attacks on Cuba in the year 1960, 12 months after the Revolution triumphed.

It was back then, at the VII Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, in San Jose, Costa Rica, that the Organization urged member states to condemn the island, as part of U.S. government attempts to create a political and diplomatic context that isolated Cuba, and thus mask the planned military attacks prepared by the CIA, contained in the secret directive “A Program of Covert Action Against the Castro Regime,” approved March 17, 1960.

How can we forget – given that Washington has recently set up the same scenario, this time accompanied by a fierce media campaign, against Latin American nations such as Venezuela and Nicaragua – the Cuban position at the Costa Rican OAS meeting of 1960, voiced by the “Chancellor of Dignity” Raúl Roa García. How can we forget the exclamations of an entire people: “With or without the OAS, we will win the fight!”

Referring to the OAS decision to isolate Cuba, Comandante en Jefe Fidel Castro said that the meeting in Costa Rica was a lesson for the peoples of America, who will never forgive the betrayal of those who offered the rights of the Cuban nation to the empire on a silver platter.

Those who signed the document “will go down in history as the Judas Iscariot of the Americas!” Fidel said then.

There are plenty of examples to show that the OAS is nothing more than an imperialist instrument, acting in an interventionist way against the peoples of the region; just as there are to unmask a traitor like Luis Almagro, who has become Latin America’s most fanatical enemy, and the most submissive of the U.S. government’s lackeys.

The latest campaign by this discredited institution has been its interventionist efforts against two democratically elected governments of the region: those of Venezuela and Nicaragua.

The OAS has surpassed all expectations with regard to the Bolivarian nation, dictating disrespectful and crude resolutions, leading a media war to destabilize the country and create real chaos in the region.

Revealed for what he is, Luis Almagro recently tweeted: “We welcome the assumption of Guaidó as Acting President of Venezuela under Article 233 of the Constitution. He has our support, that of the international community and that of the Venezuelan people.”

This was the first reaction of the OAS and its secretary general to the statements of the president of the National Assembly of Venezuela (in a state of contempt), Juan Guaidó, that he would assume the presidency of the Bolivarian nation, after describing its legitimate President, Nicolás Maduro, as an “usurper.”

This is undoubtedly part of an escalating war against Venezuela, and a shameless means of interfering in its internal affairs.

Regarding another sovereign state of the region, Nicaragua, the OAS invoked the Inter-American Democratic Charter, which may lead to the suspension of Central American country from the organization, as reported by EFE.

Luis Almagro’s speech at the last meeting of the OAS, in addition to being long and meddlesome, exposed him as the liar he is. Just as it did 60 years ago against Cuba, the OAS is now fabricating an interventionist farce with statements like: “In a democracy, there can be no repression, nor violation of the human rights of opponents, students, politicians, campesinos, civilians and minors.”

The interesting thing about all this is that within the same OAS that lacks all credibility, are representatives of countries like Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and others, the daily settings of repression against students, workers, teachers, indigenous people, and where hundreds of social leaders are assassinated. All this is done in the name of democracy, just like that defended by the Judas, Luis Almagro.

Our peoples, in some cases confused by the current reactionary attack mounted from Washington and seconded by the OAS, will unmask the traitors who vote against Venezuela and Nicaragua today, as they did against Cuba. And I am sure they will do so in the future, as long as we act promptly and unite to discredit the OAS, Luis Almagro and the self-proclaimed Lima Group. ... e-americas
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Re: Cuba

Post by blindpig » Tue Jan 29, 2019 4:02 pm

Cuban intelligence at work
Revolution and science have grown together in Cuba, with the development of biotechnology, and relations between universities and research centers, exemplifying this strategic alliance

Author: Granma news staff |

january 29, 2019 09:01:01

In several Cuban provinces, universities are at the center of scientific activity and direct the main research centers, as is the case with the Center for Plant Biotechnology and the Center for Chemical Bioactives in Villa Clarafred Photo: Freddy Pérez Cabreras

Scientific and technological development is an inextricable part of the social project launched in Cuba in 1959. Current accomplishments are the reflection of a long process, and are based on a creative, participative strategy which produced concrete results from the beginning of the 1960s, especially in the field of education and health, as well as technological and industrial development.


- 1961: The Ministry of Industries was created.

- 1962: As the country was already suffering the consequences of the U.S. blockade and witnessing the constant exodus of many of its most qualified technicians, Che created the magazine Nuestra Industria Tecnológica, in which he defined the stages of Cuban technological development. The nation’s Academy of Sciences was founded, with roots that dated back to the 19th century, and new, broader objectives; while the Victoria de Girón Institute of Basic and Preclinical Sciences was created.

- 1963: In guiding the fundamental work of the ministerial department of Technical Development, Che defined the objectives of a series of research institutes, including the Cuban Institute of Technological Research, the Cuban Sugar Cane Derivatives Institute, and the Cuban Institute for the Development of Machinery, which would focus on the development of replacement parts. The Ministry of Public Health’s 13 national scientific institutes were created.

- 1964: José Antonio Echeverría University was built.

In the 1960s, also emerging were centers to promote the development of agriculture: the Institute of Animal Science, the Center for Animal and Plant Health, the Institute of Agricultural Sciences, and the Indio Hatuey Forage and Pasture Station.

- Fidel promoted the National Botanical Garden in Havana, attached to the University of Havana’s Biology department.

- Work began on the new science of computing, through the Digital Research Center, where the first Cuban computer was built in 1969.


At the beginning of the 1960s, under the personal direction of Fidel, work to establish a scientific institution of the highest level began, to conduct research in basic and applied sciences, and train specialists and researchers. Thus, in 1965, founded was the National Center for Scientific Research (Cenic), from which other biotechnology institutions emerged.

The study and development of biosciences, their contributions and rapid growth as a priority, fundamental branch of science and technology in the country, received strong support in 1980s, with the decisive leadership of Cenic.

In 1981, Fidel created the “Biological Front” to strengthen and coordinate the work and research of different institutions in biotechnology. That same year, a first group of six doctors was formed to develop technology for the production of Interferon - a novel scientific discovery made in Finland - an objective that was achieved within just 42 days. Subsequently, the Center for Biological Research was created.

In 1986, the Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology was inaugurated, with state-of-the-art facilities and equipment and - of fundamental importance - a group of young, highly motivated and trained scientists.

From the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s, the field of biotechnology, genetic engineering, and the pharmaceutical and medical equipment industry in Cuba experienced rapid growth, reflecting both the evolution of world science and the preexisting base that had been established, as well as the country’s long tradition in medical, biological, and chemical science.

In addition to our highly qualified human potential for research and development, an environment existed in which these technologies could be applied, given the expansion of health services and the advanced technical level of agriculture, livestock ranching, and the food industry.

The impact on Cuba’s public health system of the development, production, and application of research in the field of biotechnology and genetic engineering can be summarized as follows:

- Availability of vaccines: vaccines are produced in Cuba via recombinant processes, which ensure full coverage for the entire population. Other vaccines are imported, to complete the vaccination program against 13 diseases.

- Prenatal and neonatal diagnostic programs, which include the early detection of neural tube defects, Down syndrome, and hereditary metabolic diseases.

- Availability of new medicines.

In a short period of time, Cuba has developed more than 50 biotechnological products to meet a large portion of the nation’s needs in diagnostics, analysis, vaccines, and high-tech products, while representing great economic potential given their value added.


- The highest priority is given to the development of science, advanced technology, and research, to obtain new medicines, vaccines, and industrial products, and create a technological and productive base with advanced quality control systems.

- Integration of institutions is promoted.

- Complete cycle systems are to be developed, integrating research, production, and marketing.

- Political and technical selection of personnel and dedication to work is supported.

- Impacts on health are prioritized.

- Impacts on food production are prioritized.

- Direct export management is facilitated, with enterprises focused on generating financial resources to cover their own expenses and make a greater contribution to the economy.


Links with universities are at the very core of Scientific Poles – where centers are connected and strengthened within the research-production context, according to the conception expressed by Fidel in 1990, that they should become “instruments of cooperation and mutual support” and part of a strategy designed for the training of human resources.

Poles bring together a heterogeneous group of scientific institutions affiliated with different state agencies. They have in common precisely their scientific character, that is, they are institutions dedicated to the production of new knowledge; to the development and application of new technologies; and to the elaboration of novel products under rigorous production conditions and quality control.

Their work in directed toward meeting national needs and generating exports to countries in which they compete with large transnational corporations that, unlike enterprises in underdeveloped countries, are in a position to devote significant resources to scientific research, production, and marketing.

In several Cuban provinces, universities are at the center of scientific activity and direct the main research centers. This is clearly seen in the case of biotechnology, in Ciego de Ávila, Santiago de Cuba, and especially Villa Clara, with two important institutions: the Center for Plant Biotechnology and the Center for Chemical Bioactives.

Camagüey also has an important educational institution linked to the Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in the capital, facilitating constant interaction with the university.


- Cuba has carried out policies prioritizing investment in education, science, and technology, as well as the application of scientific research in the productive process, and in education itself.

- Options for the training of conscious, professionally prepared citizens have been expanded.

- The country currently invests 10% of its GDP in education, and more than 1% in research and development.

- Cuba has more than 40 institutions of higher learning and more than 200 scientific research centers across the island.

- The promotion of scientific and technological development is related not only to economic needs, but also to defending national independence and sovereignty, and serves to enhance cultural identity and the humanistic principles we value.

SOURCE: Fidel y la ciencia: la historia de la biotecnología en Cuba, courtesy of Doctors José Miyar Barruecos & Eulogio Pimentel ... ce-at-work
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Re: Cuba

Post by blindpig » Tue Mar 05, 2019 3:50 pm

Cuban Foreign Ministry denounces escalating U.S. hostility
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs rejects, in the strongest terms, the new escalation in aggressive U.S. behavior toward Cuba through the Helms-Burton Act

Author: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cuba |

march 5, 2019 09:03:03


The U.S. State Department announced today the decision to allow, as of March 19 this year, the filing of lawsuits before U.S. courts under Title III of the Helms-Burton Act only against Cuban companies included on the List of Restricted Entities issued by that government in November of 2017, which was updated one year later. This arbitrary and illegitimate list, intended to tighten the blockade and expand its extraterritorial effects, forbids U.S. citizens from engaging in direct financial transactions with the aforementioned entities.
The announcement made by the U.S. State Department also indicated that it would suspend for only 30 days the option of initiating legal action with the same purposes against other Cuban entities or foreign companies which maintain commercial or economic relations with Cuba.
Since its entry into effect in 1996, the Helms-Burton Act has sought to universalize the economic blockade through brutal and illegal pressures exerted by the United States against third countries, their governments, and companies. It is intended to asphyxiate the Cuban economy, and generate or increase shortages among the population with the purpose of imposing in Cuba a government that serves the interests of the U.S.
Given the illegitimate character of the goals they pursue, which are contrary to international law, the Helms-Burton Act and the blockade arouse universal rejection, which has been reiterated for almost three decades within the most important regional and international fora. The most recent example of this was the United Nations General Assembly meeting held on November 1, when this policy was rejected in 10 consecutive votes, thus leaving the U.S. icompletely isolated.
Title II of the Helms-Burton Act states that the overthrowing of the revolutionary government, the subsequent tutelage by a U.S. intervenor and the subsequent establishment of a counterrevolutionary government subordinate to Washington, that would no doubt pursue the return to, or compensation for, former owners of all properties they or their descendants might claim, regardless of whether or not they were U.S. citizens at the time the nationalizations took place, or the fact that they abandoned the property. During this entire period, the economic blockade would continue to be fully implemented.
Consequently, Cubans would be forced to return, reimburse or pay U.S. claimants for the house in which they live, the area on which their communities are built, the arable land where they cultivate produce, the school where their children are educated, the hospital or polyclinic where they receive medical assistance, the place where their workplace is located or where they have a private business, and also sites used to provide subsidized services such as electricity, water, and communications enjoyed by the population.
This is an aspiration that can only be conceived by the minds of those who identify Cuba as a colonial possession. According to the Helms-Burton Act, the economic blockade would be lifted only when that ambition is fulfilled.
This law relies on two fundamental lies: the notion that nationalizations carried out soon after the triumph of the Revolutionary were illegitimate or inappropriate, and that Cuba is a threat to the U.S. national security.
Cuban nationalizations were carried out in accordance with the law, strictly abiding by the Constitution and in accordance with international law. All nationalizations included processes of fair and appropriate compensation, something that the U.S. government refused to consider. Cuba reached and honored global compensation agreements with other nations which are today investing in Cuba, such as Spain, Switzerland, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany and France.
The real threat to regional peace and security are the irresponsible declarations and actions of the U.S. government as well as the destabilization plans aimed at Latin America and the Caribbean, pursuing the express purpose of imposing the Monroe Doctrine.
The Reaffirmation of Cuban Dignity and Sovereignty Act of December 24, 1996, states that the Helms-Burton Act is illegal, inapplicable, and has no legal value or effect whatsoever. It considers null and void any claim under that law by any individual or legal entity.
According to that law, claims for compensation for nationalized properties could be part of a process of negotiation on the based on equality and mutual respect between the governments of Cuba and the United States, and be “reviewed together with the indemnifications the Cuban state and people are entitled to as a result of the damages caused by the blockade and aggressions of every sort, for which the U.S. government is responsible”. It also makes it clear that those who resort to procedures or mechanisms under the Helms-Burton Act, to the detriment of others, will be excluded from possible future negotiations.
The Cuban Government reiterates to all economic partners and foreign companies operating in Cuba that full guarantees will be granted to foreign investments and joint projects. Article 28 of the Cuban Constitution, which was ratified by an overwhelming majority on February 24, 2019, also recognizes these guarantees, which are additionally included in Law No. 118 on Foreign Investment of March 29, 2014.
Today’s decision imposes additional obstacles to our economic development and progress goals, but the United States will continue to fail to achieve its main objective of suppressing by force the sovereign will of Cubans and our determination to build socialism. The majority opinion of the peoples of Cuba and the United States, in favor of improved relations, and the development of civilized, respectful coexistence, will prevail.

Havana, March 4, 2019 ... -hostility
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Re: Cuba

Post by blindpig » Fri Mar 08, 2019 12:40 pm

Why does the Cuban woman support the Revolution so decisively?
The Cuban woman so resolutely supports the Revolution, so enthusiastically to the Revolution, so firmly to the Revolution, so faithfully to the Revolution (...), because it is a revolution that means for women two revolutions, which means for women a double liberation: the woman being part of the humble sectors of the country (...); and the woman -in addition- discriminated against not as a worker but discriminated against as a woman

Author: Fidel Castro Ruz |

March 8, 2019 00:03:15

Photo: Archive of Granma and Endrys Correa.

I told a colleague that this phenomenon of women in the Revolution was a revolution within another revolution. And if we were asked what is the most revolutionary thing that the Revolution is doing, we would answer that the most revolutionary thing the Revolution is doing is precisely this; that is, the revolution that is taking place in the women of our country. If we were asked what are the things that have taught us the most in the Revolution, we would answer that one of the most interesting lessons that revolutionaries are receiving in the Revolution is the lesson that women are giving us (...).

It's happening to us that, in reality, that potential force is superior to what the most optimistic of us could have ever seen. And that's why we said that maybe in the background, unconsciously, unconsciously there was some prejudice or there was some underestimation, since reality is demonstrating, just beginning to march along this path, all the possibilities and all the role that women can play in a revolutionary process (...).

If women believe that their situation within society is an optimal situation, if women believe that the revolutionary function, their revolutionary function within society has been fulfilled, they would be making a mistake.

It seems to us that women still have to struggle a lot, that women have to work hard to reach the place they really should occupy (...).

If women in our country were doubly exploited, they were doubly humiliated, that means simply that in a social revolution women should be doubly revolutionary.

And this perhaps explains, or contributes to explain, and it can be said that it is the social basis that explains why the Cuban woman so decisively supports the Revolution, so enthusiastically to the Revolution, so firmly to the Revolution, so faithfully to the Revolution. Simply for that reason, because it is a revolution that means for women two revolutions, which means for women a double liberation: women being part of the humble sectors of the country, of the exploited sectors of the country; and the woman -in addition- discriminated against not as a worker but discriminated against as a woman within that exploitative society.

That is why the attitude of women in our Revolution, in our country, responds to that reality, responds to what the Revolution has meant for women. And the popular sectors, the sectors of the people support the Revolution to the same extent that the Revolution has meant liberation for them (...).

I only have to say with all my strength: Long live the Cuban women! Long live the revolutionary spirit, the discipline, the devotion of Cuban women!

Long live the female revolution within the socialist revolution!

Source: Address at the close of the V National Plenary of the FMC, on December 9, 1966. ... 9-00-03-15
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Re: Cuba

Post by blindpig » Fri Mar 15, 2019 2:08 pm

Cuba reaffirms that there is no evidence of any sonic attack
The alleged sonic attacks that would have affected US diplomats in Havana, in addition to lacking any evidence, are used by elements of the extreme right of the United States. UU and the Cuban-American mafia in that country to force the idea that Cuba is a threat

Author: Raúl Antonio Capote |

March 14, 2019 22:03:09

Illustration: Cubahora

The alleged sonic attacks that would have affected US diplomats in Havana, in addition to lacking any evidence, are used by elements of the extreme right of the United States. UU and the Cuban-American mafia in that country to force the idea that Cuba is a threat.

This was expressed by the head of the United States Directorate of the Cuban Foreign Ministry, Carlos Fernández de Cossío, at a press conference together with researchers from the Ministry of the Interior and Cuban scientists who explained the entire investigation process carried out since February. In 2017, the United States announced the existence of incidents against its legation in Havana, to which Canada later joined.

Fernández de Cossío said that the issue is subject to "a high political manipulation by the United States.

"This is a national security issue for Cuba, especially when you know the political intentions declared by some individuals, to conduct our relations by a pattern of confrontation," said the diplomat.

Cuba assumes this issue with extreme seriousness and identifies deliberate slander as dangerous and irresponsible. Our country has acted with absolute transparency, giving high priority to collaboration with the US and Canadian authorities.


José Alazo Rangel and Roberto Hernández Caballero, Criminalistics officers from the Ministry of the Interior and the Directorate of General Investigation and Operations, respectively, presented the results of the police investigation into the alleged sonic attacks.

"A possible author has not been identified, nor people with motivation or intention or with the means to be able to execute this type of attack". Both officials explained that the results of the analysis of the recordings presented by the United States showed that it is impossible for them to cause harm to the health of the people.

Dr. Mitchell Valdés, director of the Neurosciences Center of Cuba, declared that "there is no evidence that there was damage to the brain networks of the alleged diplomats attacked, it is not possible to sustain the idea that supposedly in Cuba has occurred in a number of people the same disease caused by an external agent ».

Valdés pleaded for an open collaboration between all the parties to be able to clarify those facts. ... 9-22-03-09

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